2.1 Literature related to general information on AIDS:

Dr. Suvedi B. K. (1994) described that the causative organism of AIDS is called human immune deficiency virus, in short HIV. The virus was detected in 1983 in patients with AIDS by Dr. Luc Montagnier and later confirmed by Dr. Robert Gallo. Initially the name given for the virus was HTLV- III (Human T-cell Lymphotropic virus Type III) ARV (AIDS related virus) and LAV (Lymphadenapathy associated virus) However the scientists later in 1986, agreed to give the virus a globally acceptable name HIV. The HIV falls in the retrovirus group under lentiviruses in the retroviridae family of viruses. The characteristic feature of the retroviruses is that they are capable of transcribing RNA into DNA with the help of a enzyme and remain inside the cell lifelong that is why, once infected the person remains infectious throughout his life.

Sawyer, Kathy, Stein Rob(1999) presented a report published in the March 16 issue of the proceedings of the Academy of sciences which indicates that protein found in urine, tears, saliva and mother's milk appear to neutralize HIV. Researches discovered the proteins called lysozyme and ribonuclease, while analyzing a harmone produce during pregnancy that has an inhibitory effect on HIV. The findings may explain why HIV is not transmitted through salive. Lead researcher Sylvia Lee Hung of the new york university school of medicine said that the proteins may be useful an anti-AIDS agents and that they will likely be well tolerated by the body.

Gree Gayling, Meran Theresa A(1988) stated that HIV antibody and viral culture are the primary means of documenting HIV infection. Antibody testing is the test of choice for rapid and inexpensive confirmation of HIV exposure. Antibody testing alone, however is not diagnostic for AIDS. The most commonly used tests to detect HIV antibody are the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) technique and the western blot technique. The Elisa technique uses spectrophotometry to detect serum antibodies that bind to laboratory grown HIV antigens. the western blot technique uses electrophoresis to separate viral antigens and measures scrum antibody reaction to specific viral proteins.

United press international (1999) presented a research conducted at northwestern university indicated that there are similarities between the Ebola virus, HIV, and the pathogens that cause measles, Mumps and other infections, scientists determined the structure of a protein that the viruses us to enter host cells . The protein called the "fusion protein" Snags the membrane of a host cell, allowing the virus to enter the cell. the discovery, which is documented in today's edition of molecular cell, may help scientists develop antiviral medications.